Flames

CONDOR – Applications

The columns labelled G & W are from Gaydon and Wolfhard (1970) Flames: Their structure, radiation, and temperature, 3rd edition, Chapman and Hall, Ltd., London, p. 304. The results that Gaydon and Wolfhard give for CH4 + 2O2 are from Sachse and Bartholomé (1949 Z. Electrochem. 53, 183). Gayden and Wolfhard note that the OH mole fraction appears to be too high, and the results from CONDOR show this to be the case. The C2H2 + air flame is calculated for a stoichiometric mixture of C2H2 + O2 with the O2/N2 ratio fixed at that of dry air (20.946 % / 78.084 % = 0.268).

Values of calculated temperature and composition of burnt gases for some typical flames at atmospheric pressure
Fuel + oxidizer H2 + 1/2 O2 H2 + NO CH4 + 2 O2 C2H2 + air C8H18 + 12 1/2 O2 CO + 1/2 O2 CO + N2O
G&W CONDOR G&W CONDOR G&W CONDOR G&W CONDOR G&W CONDOR G&W CONDOR G&W CONDOR
Temp. (K) 3083 3113 3010 2523 3082 2973 2898
H2O 0.57 .576 0.35 0.360 0.37 0.414 0.07 0.0710 0.26 0.2911
CO2 0.12 0.124 0.12 0.1190 0.14 0.1540 0.46 0.4579 0.25 0.2468
CO 0.15 0.149 0.04 0.0392 0.22 0.2148 0.35 0.3484 0.20 0.1982
O2 0.05 0.0513 0.04 0.037 0.07 0.081 0.02 0.0158 0.09 0.1001 0.15 0.1540 0.08 0.07814
H2 0.16 0.1514 0.12 0.123 0.07 0.068 0.00 3.77×10-3 0.05 0.0546
OH 0.10 0.1085 0.08 0.084 0.14 0.088 0.01 6.98×10-3 0.14 0.0911
H 0.08 0.0788 0.08 0.077 0.05 0.0426 0.00 1.71×10-3 0.05 0.0472
O 0.04 0.0338 0.04 0.0316 0.03 0.033 0.00 2.04×10-3 0.05 0.0471 0.04 0.0405 0.02 0.0220
NO 0.02 0.014 0.01 6.64×10-3 0.02 0.0198
N2 0.27 0.274 0.73 0.7339 0.43 0.435


Values of calculated temperature and composition of burnt H2 + Cl2 at atmospheric pressure. Values are for a stoichiometric mixture.
Fuel + Oxidizer H2 + Cl2
G & W CONDOR
Temp. (K) 2503
H2 0.04 0.0379
H 1×10-2 4.96×10-3
HCl 0.87 0.8595
Cl 0.08 0.0794
Cl2 6×10-4 5.34×10-4


Chemistry in Sulfur-Bearing Flames

Chemistry in an H2S-O2-N2 Flame 1355 K, 75 mmHg (0.099 atm)
Mole Fractions
Gas CONDOR Observed
N2 0.759 0.765
O2 0.101 0.100
SO2 0.069 0.066
H2O 0.069 0.069
H2 1.4×10-7 0
H2S 5.9×10-17 0
The observed values are from Figure 1 of E.L. Merryman and A. Levy (1971) Proceedings of the 2nd International Ckean Air Congress, pp. 361-370.


Chemistry in a CH3SH-O2-N2 Flame 1780 K, 75 mmHg (0.099 atm)
Mole Fractions
Gas CONDOR Observed
N2 0.702 0.704
H2O 0.109 0.112
O2 0.076 0.076
SO2 0.055 0.056
CO2 0.055 0.052
CO 1.0×10-4 0
The observed values are from Figure 3 of Merryman and Levy (1971).